Kok darahnya warna putih???

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Pernah lihat darah? pertanyaan yang aneh khan...karena semua orang pasti pernah melihat darah. Ketika kita terluka menetes warna merah nah itu adalah darah. Namun sebuah pengalaman menarik ketika pasien membutuhkan transfusi kenapa yang ditransfusikan ada yang tidak berwarna merah kadang putih lho. Hal tersebut adalah proses pengolahan darah yang dapat dipisahkan menjadi produksi komponen darah.

Apa sih komponen darah itu : komponen darah adalah bagian-bagian darah yang dipisahkan dengan cara fisik/mekanik tanpa menambahkan bahan kimia kedalamnya (dengan cara pengendapan/pemutaran)

  • Derivat darah/plasma adalah bagian-bagian darah yang dipisahkan dengan cara kimiawi (menambahkan bahan kimia pada proses pembuatannya)
  • Produk darah : mencakup keduanya

Macam Komponen Darah

1. Komponen seluler

  • Darah Merah Pekat (DMP = PRC)
  • DMP Miskin Leukosit (DMPML)
  • Trombosit Pekat (TC)
  • Leukosit Pekat (Buffy Coat)

2. Komponen non seluler

  • Plasma Donor Tunggal
  • Plasma Segar Beku
  • Kriopresipitat

Komponen yang disediakan di UDD PMI Kabupaten Jember :

  1. Darah Lengkap / Whole Blood
  2. Packed Red Cell (PRC)
  3. Trombosit Pekat (Platelet Concentrate)
  4. Plasma segar (fresh plasma)
  5. Plasma biasa

Darah Lengkap (DL) / Whole Blood (WB)

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  • Isi utama : Eritrosit
  • Mengandung trombosit + Faktor pembekuan
  • labil pada Darah Lengkap Segar
  • Volume : tergantung volume kantong darah yang dipakai – 250 ml, 350 ml, 450 ml
  • Suhu simpan 4020C dengan masa simpan 35 hari
  • Berguna untuk meningkatkan jumlah eritrosit + plasma secara bersamaan
  • Pelayanan melalui uji cocok serasi mayor dan minor antara darah donor dan pasien
  • Peningkatan Hb post transfusi 450 ml DL : 0,9 0,12 g/dl
  • Peningkatan nilai Ht 3 – 4%
  • Di negara maju jarang dipakai

Darah Merah Pekat (DMP) + Packed Red Cell (PRC)

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  • Isi utama : eritrosit
  • Volume tergantung volume kantong darah yang dipakai : 150 – 300 ml
  • Nilai Ht 70%
  • Suhu simpan 40 20C
  • Lama simpan
  • 24 jam : dengan sistim terbuka
  • Sama dengan masa simpan DL asalnya : dengan sistim tertutup
  • Pelayanan : melalui uji cocok serasi darah donor dan pasien
  • Berguna untuk meningkatkan jumlah eritrosit
  • Peningkatan Hb dan Ht post transfusi DMP berasal dari 450 ml sama dengan DL
  • Manfaat :
  • Mengurangi volume transfusi
  • Memungkinkan transfusi cocok serasi tidak

Identik ABO pada keadaan darurat (seperti : DMP golongan O)

Trombosit Pekat = Platelet Concentrate

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  • Isi utama : trombosit
  • Volume : 50 ml
  • Suhu simpan : 200 20 C
  • Lama simpan :
  • 3 hari : tanpa goyangan
  • 5 hari : dengan goyangan
  • Berguna untuk meningkatkan jumlah trombosit
  • Peningkatan post transfusi pada dewasa rata-rata 5.000 – 10.000 / ul
  • Efek samping : urtikaria, menggigil, demam, alloimunisasi Antigen trombosit donor

Leukosit Pekat

  • Isi utama : granulosit
  • Disiapkan dalam bentuk Buffy Coat
  • Volume 50 – 80 ml
  • Suhu simpan : 200 20 C
  • Lama simpan : segera ditransfusikan dalam 24 jam
  • Berguna meningkatkan jumlah granulosit
  • Pelayanan melalui uji cocok serasi darah donor dan pasien
  • Efek samping : urtikaria, menggigil, demam
  • Jarang dipakai

Plasma Donor Tunggal

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  • Isi utama : plasma
  • Berisi pula : Faktor pembekuan stabil, protein plasma
  • Volume 150 – 220 ml
  • Suhu simpan dan lama simpan 40 20 C
  • sampai dengan 5 hari setelah tanggal kadaluarsa darah Lengkap asal - 180C atau lebih rendah : 5 tahun
  • Berguna untuk :
  • Meningkatkan volume plasma
  • Meningkatkan faktor pembekuan stabil (F II, VII, X, XI)
  • Pelayanan : cocok golongan ABO dengan eritrosit pasien
  • Efek samping : urtikaria, menggigil, demam, hipervolemia
  • Dapat diolah menjadi plasma segar (fresh plasma) yaitu mengolah darah dari pengambilan tidak lebih dari 5 jam
  • Plasma biasa pengolahan darah dari pengambilan sebelum tanggal kadaluarsa

Plasma Segar Beku

  • Isi Utama : plasma dan faktor pembekuan labil
  • Volume : 150 – 220 ml
  • Suhu simpan : - 180 C atau lebih rendah
  • Lama simpan : 1 (satu) tahun
  • Berguna untuk meningkatkan faktor pembekuan labil bila faktor pembekuan pekat/kriopresipitat tidak ada
  • Pelayanan :
  • cocok golongan ABO dengan eritrosit pasien
  • Ditransfusikan dalam waktu 6 jam setelah dicairkan
  • Efek samping : urtikaria, menggigil, demam, hipervolemia

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